European University Press: PEER Reviewed Journals

European Journal of Chinese Studies
EJCS 3 (2020)
EJCS 2 (2019)
EJCS 1 (2018)
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European Journal of Chinese Studies [English] ISSN 2626-9694, E-ISSN 2626-9708, since 2018

Editorial Board: Martin Woesler, Hunan Normal University/China and University Witten/Germany; Luigi Moccia, University Rome III/Italy; Stefan Messmann, Central European University/Hungary; Joël Bellassen, Paris University/France; Lutz Bieg, University Cologne/Germany; Claudia von Collani, University Wuerzburg/Germany; Hermann Halbeisen, University Cologne/Germany; Harald Holz, University Muenster/Germany; Frank Kraushaar, University of Latvia/Latvia; Peter Kupfer, University Mainz/Germany; Wolfgang Ommerborn, Ruhr University Bochum/Germany; Gregor Paul, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology/Germany; Karl-Heinz Pohl, University Trier/Germany; Guido Rappe, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology/Germany; Maurizio Scarpari, Foscari University Venice/Italy; Helwig Schmidt-Glintzer, University Goettingen/Germany; Harro von Senger, University Freiburg/Germany; Helmolt Vittinghoff, University Cologne/Germany; Licia D. Kim, Utah Valley University/USA; Tianwei You, Nanking University/China.

This is a double blind peer reviewed annual journal on modern and contemporary China, Website: Submission Guidelines: Please orient yourself at the existing form and quotation style, the copy editors will format your paper.

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3.6. Errors in publishing. If the author discovers an important error or an inaccuracy in its publication, its obligation is to quickly inform the editor and to consider, in agreement with the person in charge, the withdrawal of the article or the publication of the information about the error.

2020 pdf for download"
Editorial and Reports EJCS 3 (2020) #-#;

Martin Woesler, Hunan Normal University/China. " What we can learn from China: Why not 70% of the Germans will get infected by COVID-19 and why the pandemic can not only be slowed down, but stopped " EJCS 3 (2020) #-#;
: In this article, it is derived from the experience of earlier pandemics and of the SARS pandemics in China (SARS 1, SARS-CoV-2) and Korea (SARS-CoV-2), that not 70% of the people have to get infected to stop the pandemic in Germany and other countries, but that the pandemic can be restrained by strict contact ban policies and stopped in many countries by vaccination in summer 2021. China has mastered the pandemic better than European countries and the US. This is attributed to the stricter implementation of measures, which does not seem possible in countries with larger individuality and civil rights of individual citizens (cf. the “Swedish Model”). What can we learn from China? What does it change in the competition of society systems?
Key words: Stopping the pandemic, time horizon, post-pandemic, quarantine, contact ban.
Berliner Zeitung (2020). „70 Prozent der Deutschen werden Corona bekommen“. Berliner Zeitung (1.3.2020), online:, accessed on March 29, 2020.
„Corona-Virus-Karte. Infektionen Deutschland, weltweit“. Morgenpost https://interaktiv., accessed on March 29, 2020.
Die Welt (2020). deutschland/video206489421/Merkel-zu-Corona-60-bis-70-Prozent-der-Bevoelkerung-koennten-infiziert-werden.html, (March 12, 2020), accessed on March 29, 2020.
Die Zeit (2020). politik/ausland/2020-03/covid-19-grossbritannien-herdenimmunitaet-virusbekaempfung, (15.3.2020). accessed on March 29, 2020.
Escher, Manuel. (2020). „Immunität durch Infektionen“ Der Standard (14.3.2020),, visited March 29, 2020.
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (2020.) online politik/inland/hilfslieferungen-laesst-europa-italien-im-stich-16693137.html, (March 24, 2020), accessed on March 29, 2020.
Imperial College. (2020). “COVID-19 NPI modeling“, 16.3.2020
Johns Hopkins University „Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU)“ https://, accessed on March 29, 2020
„Grippewelle war tödlichste in 30 Jahren“ Ärzteblatt (20.9.2019), online: https://www., accessed on March 29, 2020
New York Times (2020). https://www.nytimes. com/2020/03/18/business/coronavirus-ventilator-shortage.html, accessed on March 29, 2020
Robert Koch-Institut (2020). „Nationales Referenzzentrum für Masern, Mumps, Röteln“. https://, accessed on March 29, 2020
Rhodes, A. (2012). Rhodes, A.; Ferdinande, P.; Flaatten, H.; Guidet, B.; Metnitz, P. G.; Moreno, R. P. (2012-10-01). "The variability of critical care bed numbers in Europe". Intensive Care Medicine. 38 (10): 1647–1653. doi:10.1007/s00134-012-2627-8. ISSN 1432-1238. PMID 22777516
Society of Critical Care Medicine (2020). Critical-Care-Statistics, visited March 29, 2020
Tagesspiegel (2020). wissen/wie-viele-haben-sich-mit-sars-cov-2-angesteckt-warum-statistiker-von-222-000-infizierten-in-deutschland-ausgehen/ 25699430.html, visited April 11, 2020.
Woesler, Martin. (2020a) Corona – A Reflection During the Pandemic. Woesler, Martin and Hans-Martin Sass (Hg.) (2020) Medicine and Ethics in Times of Corona, Lit Press 2020, ISBN 978-3-643-91320-3, 448 pp., pp. 1-2
Woesler, Martin. (2020b) Responsibility and Ethics in Times of Corona, Woesler, Martin and Hans-Martin Sass (Hg.) (2020) Medicine and Ethics in Times of Corona, Lit
Press 2020, ISBN 978-3-643-91320-3, 448 pp., pp. 45-62
Xu, Chengdong & Wang, Jinfeng & Wang, Li & Cao, Chunxiang. (2014). Spatial pattern of severe acute respiratory syndrome in-out flow in 2003 in Mainland China. BMC infectious diseases. 14.3843.10.1186/s12879-014-0721-y.

Stefan Messmann, Central European University (retired)/Hungary. " The Past in the Present" EJCS 3 (2020) #-#;
: The present is usually different from the past, especially for political and ideological reasons and the habits and customs are changing. This was the case in the socialist countries. However, there are some exceptions. That is the case in today’s China, where many rules, habits and customs from the imperial times still exist in some form. Such cases are, e.g., the consideration about Confucius, hukou (i.e. household registration), classification of ethnic groups, rise and fall of prominent leaders, and concubinage.
Key words: Confucius, Cultural Revolution, Four Olds and Four News, Western Zhou erea, Han Fei, Shi Huangdi, legists, hukou, ethnic groups, Deng Xiaoping, Zunyi Conference, Great Leap Forward, Zhu Enlai, Open door policy, Han Yu, Su Shi, and concubinage.
Beuys, Barbara. (2004). Der Preis der Leidenschaft – Chinas große Zeit: das dramatische Leben der Li Qingzhao, Carl Hanser Verlag, München-Wien.
Chan, K. & Zhang, L. (1999). The Hukou System and Rural-Urban Migration in China: Process and Changes. The Chinese Quarterly, 160
Chen, Hans. (2006). Kulturschock – VR China/Taiwan. Bielefeld: Reise Know-How Verlag
Cheng T. & Selden M. (1994), The Origins and Social Consequences of China’s Hukou System, The Chinese Quarterly, 139
Elvin, Mark. (1973). The Pattern of the Chinese Past, Stanford University Press
Ess, Hans van. (2009). Der Konfizianismus, München: C.H. Beck Verlag
Höllmann, Thomas O. (2007). Das alte China – Eine Kulturgeschichte, C. H. Beck Verlag, München (visited on February 20, 2021)
McMahon, Keith. Celestial women: Imperial wives and concubines in China from Song to Qing. Rowman & Littlefield, 2016.
Mühlhahn, Klaus. (2019). Making China Modern – From the Great Qing to Xi Jinping. Cambridge-London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press
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N.N. Bai Juyi’s Poems about Women, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Master Theses 1911- February 2010.
Nodelman, Uri, Colin Allen, and John Perry. "Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy." (1995).
Paul, Gregor and Martin Woesler (eds.), Zwischen Mao und Konfuzius? MultiLingua, Bochum, 2000
Sendker, Jan-Philipp. (2000). Risse in der Großen Mauer – Gesichter eines neuen China, München: Karl Blessing Verlag
Short, Ph. (1999). Mao – A Life. London: Hodder & Stoughton
Steiger/Friedrich/Schütte (eds.) (2003). Das Grosse China-Lexikon – Geschichte, Geographie, Politik, Wirtschaft, Bildung, Wissenschaft, Kultur, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft
Tran, Lisa. Concubines in Court: Marriage and Monogamy in Twentieth-Century China. Rowman & Littlefield, 2015.
Wasserstrom, Jeffrey N. (2010). China in the 21st Century – What Everyone Needs to Know Oxford University Press
Yang, Zhiyi. Dialectics of Spontaneity: The aesthetics and ethics of Su Shi (1037-1101) in poetry. Brill, 2015.

Thomas Weyrauch, Office of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (retired)/Germany. " China’s Civil Code and Civil Rights" EJCS 3 (2020) #-#;
: Between the demise of republican law in Mainland China and the emergence of a Civil Code of the People's Republic of China, 71 years passed. Although the Civil Code strengthens the personal rights of citizens, they are still curtailed by the CCP-dominated state at the same time.
Key words: civil code, civil rights, deprivation of liberties, Qing-dynasty, Republic of China
Brox, Hans / Walker, Wolf-Dietrich: Allgemeiner Teil des BGB. 34th ed., Munich: Vahlen 2010.
Bu, Yuanshi: Chinese Civil Code – The General Part –. Munich – Baden-Baden – Oxford/UK – Chicago: C.H. Beck – Nomos – Hart 2020.
Bu, Yuanshi: Einführung in das Recht Chinas. 2nd ed., Munich: C.H. Beck 2017.
Chen, Jianfu: Chinese Law: Context and Transformation. Leiden: Brill Nijhoff 2015.
Gray, Whitmore / Stults, Raymond: Civil Code of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Law School 1965.
Huang, Philip C.: Chinese Civil Justice, Past and Present. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield 2010.
Lei, Chen: 100 Years of Chinese Property Law: Looking back and thinking foreward, in: Lei, pp. 88.
Lei, Chen: Towards a Chinese Civil Code. Comparative and Historical Perspectives. Leiden: Brill Nijhoff 2012.
Wang, Zhu: On the Constitutionality of Compiling a Civil Code of China. A Process Map for Legislation Born out of Pragmatism. Wiesbaden: Springer 2020.

Fan Ka-wai, City University of Hong Kong/China. " Speaking and Recalling Bitterness in the Anti-schistosomiasis Campaign of Hubei Province in the 1960s" EJCS 3 (2020) #-#;
: On the basis of the archives of Hubei Province, This article discusses a new promotional method termed “speaking and recalling bitterness” used in the anti-schistosomiasis campaign in 1963–1964. The anti-schistosomiasis campaign was a nationwide public health campaign that started in the 1950s but was interrupted during the Great Leap Forward period (1960–1962). In 1963, the People’s Republic of China revived this campaign in the 9th national meeting for preventing schistosomiasis in Shanghai. In the meeting, speaking and recalling bitterness was highlighted as an important way to educate the masses to participate in the campaign actively. It explores how the Chinese Party of Communism made use of speaking and recalling bitterness in the campaign and organized meetings for it in villages. Finally, it discusses the contents of speaking and recalling bitterness, and describes how they were fictionalized as promotional materials.
Key words: China, Great Leap Forword, Schistosomiasis, Speaking and Recalling Bitterness, the Anti-schistosomiasis campaign
Anagnost, A (1997): National Past-times: Narrative, Representation, and Power in Modern China. Durham and London: Duke University Press.
Dirk, E., Wang, L. Y. and Palmer, K. L.(2005): Control of Schistosomiasis in China. Acta Tropica Vol. 96, pp. 67-68.
Fan, K.W. and Lai, H. K.(2008): Mao Zedong’s Fight Against Schistosomiasis. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine Vol. 51, No.2, pp. 176-187.
Fan, K.W. (2010): Mass Mobilization and the Anti-Schistosomiasis Campaign in Maoist China (1955-1960). In Handbook of Disease Outbreaks: Prevention, Detection and Control. NC, Nova Science Publishers, pp. 277-293.
Gross, M. (2016): Farewell to the God of Plague: Chairman Mao’s Campaign to Deworm China. Oakland, University of California Press.
Li, L.F. (2007): Tugai zhong de suku: yizhong minzhong dongyuan jishu de weiguan fenxi (Speaking bitterness in land reform: a micro analysis of skill of mobilizing the masses). Journal of Nanjing University Vol. 5, pp. 97-105.
Li, Y.S. (2010): The Elimination of Schistosomiasis in Jiaxing and Haining Counties, 1948-59. In Health and Hygiene in Chinese East Asia: Policies and Publics in the Long Twentieth Century. Durham, Duke University Press, pp. 204-227.
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Peng, ZD. (2009): Tugai zhong de suku: nongmin zhengzhi rentong xingcheng de yizhong xinli jizhi, Zhonggong dangshi yanjiu (speaking bitterness in land reform: the formation of peasants’ political identity from psychological perspective). Zhonggong Dangshi Yanjiu (History of CPC) Vol. 6, pp. 112-120.
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The anti-schistosomiasis station of Hanyang (ed).(1964): Quansheng fangzhi xuexichongbing xianjin danwei xianjin gongzuozhe daibiao huiyi wenjian.(The meeting documents for advanced units and representatives of advanced workers of the anti-schistosomiasis in province). Hanyang, the anti-schistosomiasis station of Hanyang.
Townsend, J.R. (1969): Political Participation in Communist China. Oakland, University of California Press.
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Wu, G. (2014ª): Speaking Bitterness: Political Education in Land Reform and Military Training under the CCP, 1947-1951. The Chinese Historical Review Vol. 21, No.1, pp. 3-23.
Wu, G. (2014b): Recalling Bitterness: Historiography, Memory, and Myth in Maoist China. Twentieth-Century China Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 245-268.
Zhang, S.H. (2001): Mao Zedong and the 1960s Socialist Education Movement. Contemporary China History Studies Vol.8, No. 1, pp. 57-69.
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2019 pdf for download"
Editorial and Reports EJCS 2 (2019) #-#;

Martin Woesler, University Witten/Herdecke/Germany; Martin Wanke, Leuphana University Lüneburg/Germany; Matthias Kettner, University Witten/Herdecke/Germany; Jens Lanfer, University Witten/Herdecke/Germany " The Chinese Social Credit System: Origin, political design, exoskeletal morality and comparisons to Western systems " EJCS 2 (2019) #-#;
: In 1999, Lin Junyue, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, developed a “Social Credit” scoring “System” to enhance trust and reliability in the Chinese market economy, strengthen social cohesion, individual ethical behaviour as well as political stability. After the first experiments in 2000 and after fine tuning, in 2002 Chinese president Jiang Zemin propagated it in a public speech. In 2014 it was announced that in 2020 every citizen and company will receive a unique id and a score (black list, no list, red list or even points), indicating the holder’s financial and economical trustworthiness, as well as filial piety and political loyalty. Low performers will be restricted, especially in mobility (access to planes, high speed trains etc.) and punished with public shame. High performers will be rewarded. This combination of a disciplinary and controlling society creates an exoskeletal, extrinsically motivated moral lead and reduces intrinsically motivated moral rule-following.
Key words: social credit system, trust, reliability, Chinese market economy, experiments, unique id, piety, political loyalty, low performers, mobility restriction, public shame, exoskeletal ethics, intrinsically motivated moral rule-following.
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Luo Huiling, Complutense University of Madrid/Spain. " No Distance Matters, neither any Difference: China-Spain Relations during Adolfo Suárez’ Government" EJCS 2 (2019) #-#;
: Before Mao’s and Franco’s death, the PRC and Spain established diplomatic relations in 1973. Both countries underwent a transitional period from 1976 to 1982, during which they got closer together and found many common interests in their foreign policy. During this period, the Spanish royals visited China. In both countires, a positive image about the fellow country was conveyed.
Key words: Mao Zedong, Franco, Deng Xiaoping, China, Spain, diplomacy, colonialism, transition, reform and open up policy.
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Muñoz, Marcelo (2007), El enigma chino. Treinta años de observador, Madrid: Espejo de Tinta.
Muñoz, Marcelo (2011), China 2050. Los grandes desafíos del gigante asiático, Madrid: Kailas.
Oficina de Información del Consejo de Estado de la República Popular China (2007), China-España, , Beijing: Chinese Intercontinental Press, versión en chino es: 中国新闻办公室编,《中国-西班牙》,五洲传播出版社,北京,2007年1月.
Oreja Aguirre, Marcelino (2011), Memoria y esperanza. Relatos de una vida, Madrid: La Esfera de los LibrosBeltrán Antolín, Joaquín, “De la invisibilidad a la espectacularidad. Cuarenta años de inmigración china en España”, from Ríos, Xulio (coord.), Las relaciones hispano-chinas, Editorial Catarata, Madrid, 2013, pp.114-131.
Beltrán Antolín, Joaquín, “Los chinos en Madrid: Aproximación a partir de datos oficiales. Hipótesis para una investigación”, from Malestar cultural y conflicto en la sociedad madrileña. II Jornadas de antropología de Madrid, Madrid, 1991, pp.295-304.
Bilefsky, Dan, “Spain´s Chinese Inmigrants Thrive in Tough Economy”, from The New York Times, January 2, 2013.
Herrera Feligreras, Andrés, “La nueva sinología española”, from Huarte de San Juan. Geografía e Historia, Nº14, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Pamplona, 2007,
Huang, Wei, “La enseñanza del español en China”, speech in the V International Congreso: “¿Qué español enseñar y cómo? Variedades del español y su enseñanza”, Cuenca, June 25-28, 2014, online link:, date of the last review: Februry 17, 2017.
Ínsua, Emilio Xosé, “Na norte de Fernando Pérez-Barreiro Nolla” y J.D., “Fernando Pérez-Barreiro Nolla”, from Heraldo de Vivero, pp.4, 8, January 15, 2010.
Ma, Zhoumin, “El desarrollo de la comunidad china en España”, from Revista de Occidente, nº349-350, 2012, pp.259-266.
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Méndez, Daniel, “China en los medios de comunicación españoles”, Chapter 10 from Ríos, Xulio (coord.), Las relaciones hispano-chinas, Editorial Catarata, Madrid, 2013, pp.194-216.
Zhang, Min, “Nueva perspectiva de relaciones comerciales entre China y España”, from Web page of Academia de Ciencias Sociales de China, February 1, 2009, online link:, date of the last review: September 8, 2014“El vice-presidente Ji Pengfei se entrevistó con la delegación de la Asociación de Amistad Hispano-China”, from Renmin Ribao, October 18, 1978, p.4, online link:, date of the last review: November 2, 2016.
“El vice-primer ministro Deng se entrevista con los padres de los reyes españoles y les expresa el deseo de recibir más visitas de los amigos españoles para promover el conocimiento mutuo y la amistad”, from Renmin Ribao, May 15, 1979, p.1, online link:, date of the last review: December 2, 2016.
“El telegrama de felicidad del rey de España”, from Renmin Ribao, October 2, 1979, p.6, online link:, date of the last review: April 2, 2017.
“Li Qiang se entrevistó con el ministro de comercio y turismo de España”, from Renmin Ribao, March 19, 1980, p.4, online link:, date of the last review: April 22, 2017. Original title in Chinese: 《李强同西班牙商业和旅游大臣会谈》.
“Yao Yilin se entrevistó con el ministro de comercio y turismo de España”, from Renmin Ribao, March 21, 1980, p.4, online link:, date of the last review: April 22, 2017. Original title in Chinese: 《姚依林会见西班牙商业旅游大臣》.
“Nuestro País firmó el primer convenio cultural con España”, from Renmin Ribao, April 9, 1981, p.6, online link:, date of the last review: April 3, 2017. Original title in Chinese: 《我国和西班牙签署第一个文化协定》.
“Se inauguró la ‘Semana de la Cultura China’ en Madrid”, from Renmin Ribao, March 4, 1982, p.6, date of the last review:, date of the last review: November 2, 2016. Original title in Chinese: 《中国文化周在马德里开幕》.
“El Comité Nacional de Juegos Olímpicos de China celebró cóctel de bienvenida para recibir al presidente del Comité Internacional de Juegos Olímpicos”, from Renmin Ribao, March 31, 1982, p.4, online link:, date of the last review: November 2, 2016. Original title in Chinese: 《中国奥委会举行酒会欢迎国际奥委会主席》.
“La arpista española celebra un recital en Beijing”, from Renmin Ribao, April 11, 1982, p.4, online link:, date of the last review: November 2, 2016.
“Chu-Lin ve al público por primera vez”, from Renmin Ribao, March 10, 1983, p.6, online link:, date of the last review: November 2, 2016.
“Entrevista con Marcelo Muñoz, decano de los empresarios españoles en China”, from IberChina, online link:, date of the last review: January 4, 2017.
“Actividades de intercambios internacionales de fotografía en la Nueva China”, special number “60 Aniversario de establecimiento de la República Popular China -- Recordar las huellas culturales de la República”, online link: http://en. content_345791_4.htm, Original title in Chinese: 国际文化网,《新中国摄影的国际交往活动》, “国庆六十周年——铭记共和国的文化足迹”专刊,date of the last review: April 22, 2017.

Michael Knüppel, Liaocheng University/China. " Preliminary report of a study on Arabic calligraphy of the Hui Muslims – the example of the dū ās (都阿) " EJCS 2 (2019) #-#;
: When the writer of this report recently gave an overview on the use of Chinese “ritualistic expendable goods” among the Hui Muslims in Shāndōng Province, the question of classification of the papers, boards and plates, called dū ā (都阿) ~ dù wā (杜哇) written in Arabic language and using Chinese Arabic calligraphy (called “Sini-style” [< arab. صيني – ṣīnī “Chinese”]), arose. The term dū ā is a Sino-Arabic transcription of Arab ducā’ (دعاء) – in Islam an originally referring to an individual prayer (invocation, petitionary prayer, thanksgiving prayer etc.) that can be spoken at any time time and in any situation beside the five daily ritual prayers (ṣalāt [صلاة]). While Muslim clerics in China know very well the meaning of dū ā, for most of the common members of the Hui Muslim communities, who do not even have basic knowledge of Arabic language or script, the term points to the papers, metal plates, glazed ceramic tiles etc. bearing religious formulas, the crede and other expressions of religious belief, which they normally can not read. Such dū ās are written by the Imāms (Chin. āhōng 阿訇 < Pers. ﺁﺨﻮﻨﺪ – āḫūnd ~ āḫōnd) who hand them over only to members of the respective community or even write them individually for them.
Key words: dū ā, Arabic calligraphy, Chinese Arabic calligraphy, Islam, Muslim, prayer, clerics, Imām.

Cîndea Gîţă, Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu/Romania; Iulia Elena, Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu/Romania; Riccardo Moratto, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies/China. " Chinese Literature in Romania: A Qualitative Study based on In-Depth Interviews with the Agents Involved in Sino-Romanian Transfer of Culture " EJCS 2 (2019) #-#;
: Literature transfer is the focal point of several areas of research, including literary studies, cultural studies, sociology, political studies, and economics. Thus, the process of cultural transfer through literature and translation is vivid and multi-layered. Based on the economic, diplomatic and political influences that govern the transfer of culture, this paper aims to study if and how the transfer of Chinese literature in Romania was influenced by these factors. The overall objective is to closely analyse literary translations from Chinese into Romanian from the standpoint of cultural reception and to reflect and investigate what this strategy involves prior to and after translation. We propose, thus, an extended approach to cultural translations, namely an approach to the sociology of translations, to their cultural, linguistic, literary, political, and economic reception. A series of interviews with the agents involved in and responsible for the translation, introduction and dissemination of Chinese literature in Romania were conducted, among whom: Romanian translators of Chinese literary works, representatives of Romanian publishing houses, former Romanian diplomats engaged in China-oriented activities, representatives of the Department of Culture of the Embassy of the PRC in Romania, members of the Romanian Cultural Institute in Beijing and directors of Confucius Institutes in Romania. With a qualitative exploratory approach, the interviews investigate the role of the agents in the cultural exchange between China and Romania and their influence on cultural, political and economic relations between the two countries. The specific objectives are to determine the factors of ideological, economic, political influence and their implications in the translation of Chinese books into Romania; and to identify the characteristics of the cultural reception of Chinese literature in Romania.
Key words: Chinese literature, literature dissemination, bilateral relations, interviews, sociology of translation, socio-cultural reception, socio-political constraints, publishing.
Cîndea Gîță, Iulia Elena. (2021). Publishing Chinese Literary Works During 1965–2018 Romania: An in-Depth Study in the Sociology of Literature. In: Moratto, Riccardo & Woesler, Martin (eds). Diverse Voices in Chinese Translation and Interpreting. Singapore: Springer.

Dube, Monica. (2019). Overview of the Chinese Book Market. [Accessed 6 March 2020].
Heilbron, Johan & Sapiro, Giselle. (2007). “Outline for a sociology of translation: Current issues and future prospects.” In Constructing a Sociology of Translation, ed. by Michaela Wolf and Alexandra Fukari. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Jauss, Hans. (1978). Pour une esthétique de la réception. Bibliothèque des Idées: Gallimard. Joint statement of the 20th EU-China Summit. (2018, July 17). statement of the 20th EU-China Summit [Accessed 6 March 2020].
Jauss, Hans. (1982). Towards an Aesthetic of Literary Reception (Theory & History of Literature). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Li, Wenrui. (2018). New translation data-base promotes Chinese literature overseas. [Accessed 6 March 2020].
Li, Wenrui. (2018). New translation database promotes Chinese literature overseas. [Accessed 6 March 2020].
Moratto, Riccardo & Woesler, Martin. (2021). Diverse Voices in Chinese Translation and Interpreting. Singapore: Springer.
Porter, Anderson. (2018). Beijing International Book Fair Reports Gains in Rights Sales. [online] Publishing Perspectives. Available at: [Accessed 6 March 2020].
Qiu, Bo. (2011). Investment in media to present true picture of China. Retrieved 4 January 2020, from
Sapiro, Gisele. (2003). The Literary Field between the State and the Market. Poetics. Journal of Empirical Research on Culture, the Media and the Arts, 441–461.
Sapiro, Gisele. (2016). How do literary works cross borders (or Not)? Journal of World Literature, 1(1), 81–96.
Yu, Liang (2018). China exports 12,651 publication copyrights in 2017 - Xinhua | [Accessed 6 March 2020].

2018 pdf for download
Editorial and Reports EJCS 1 (2018) 1-5;

Eva Shan Chou 周衫, Baruch College/USA. "Cao Yu’s Play Thunderstorm Becomes a Ballet 曹禺的《雷雨》成为芭蕾舞剧" EJCS 1 (2018) 5-16;
: Cao Yu’s (曹禺) first work, the play Thunderstorm (雷雨), made him famous at the age of 24 while he was still a univer-sity student. It was both a pioneer in the new genre of spoken drama (話劇) and path-breaking in its portrayal of incest and other illicit relations in a well-to-do family. Like Ibsen’s work, was a condemnation of society. Thunderstorm first came to the pub-lic in print through the Literature Quarterly (文學季刊). Soon after, staged perform-ances and film versions followed, with re-vivals continuing through today. It was introduced in a different genre in 1981, when the newly constituted Shanghai Ballet Company produced a full-length three-act ballet of Thunderstorm.
Key words: keine vorhanden.
References: keine vorhanden.

Markus Siedenberg 山马克, Folkwang University Essen/Germany. "A Comparison of the Essence of the Evil in The Water Margin and Goethe's Faust (Part I and II) 《水浒传》和歌德的《浮士德》比较" EJCS 1 (2018) 17-24;
: Moral relativist and Hong Kong philosopher William Sin objected to the famous literary critic Liu Zaifu's absolutist opinion that the classic novel The Water Margin has been corrupting Chinese read-ers for generations. With the help of phys-ics, philosophy, evolutionary psychology and an intercultural comparison of The Water Margin and Goethe's Faust I and II I will try to prove that the truth lies between their two opinions, partly because of ar-guments not contained in either Sin's or Zaifu's arguments.
Key words: none.
Goldstein, Sheldon: article „Bohmian Me-chanics“. In: Zalta, Edward N., Nodelman, Uri, Colin, Allen (eds.): Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, [without pag.]. 2001. Sub-stantially revised in 2013.
Göschel, Carl Friedrich: Ueber Goethe's Faust und dessen Fortsetzung. Leipzig: Hart-mann 1824, 108ff.
Hsia, Chih-tsing: The Classic Chinese Novel: A Critical Introduction. New York: Cor-nell University. 1996, 87, 93.
Liu, Zaifu: A study of Two Classics: A cultural Crtitique of the Romance of the Three Kingdoms and The Water Margin. Beijing: Sanlian Shudian 2010, 4, 203.
Sin, William: „The Water Margin, Moral Criticism, and Cultural Confrontation“. In: Dao. A Journal of Comparative Philosophy (Springer), March 2017, vol. 16, 1, 95-111.

Li Li 李力, University of Denver/USA. "Tales of the Chinese Cultural Revolution in English-speaking Countries 英语国家關於中国文化大革命的故事" EJCS 1 (2018) 25-32;
: Chinese Studies, especially contemporary Chinese Studies, is not merely a one-dimensional process of rendition of literary texts in Chinese into a foreign lan-guage, English in this case, but a multi-dimensional, discursive practice of idea exchanges, ideology negotiations, and iden-tity configurations among writers and translators who produced these texts. This phenomenon has enriched, and indeed complicated, our understanding of conven-tional translation of Chinese literary texts and their international dissemination. This paper critically examines literary texts about the Chinese Cultural Revolution, including those originally written in English by Chinese immigrants and those translated into English. Through analysis of narra-tive devices, marketing strategies, and circulations of those texts, this paper demonstrates that the creation and recep-tion of those texts, in English-speaking countries, is largely determined by a model of knowledge production that promotes Western intellectual and cultural preoccu-pation, rather than Chinese-centered social analysis.
Keywords: the Chinese Cultural Revolu-tion, Chinese diaspora writers, Qiu Xiao-long, Dai Sijie, Red Guard memoir
Eakin, Paul John. Introduction to Philippe Lejeune, On Autobiography, Philippe Le-jeune, On Autobiography trans. Kathe-rine Leary (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989), ix.
Dai Sijie. Balzac and the Little Chinese Seam-stress. Trans. Ina Rilke. New York: An-chor Books, 2001.
Ma, Sheng-mei. East-West Montage Reflection on Asian Bodies in Diaspora. Honolulu: University of Hawai’I Press, 2007.
Qiu Xiaolong. Death of a Red Heroine. New York: Soho Press, 2000.
_____ Red Mandarin Dress. New York: St. Martin’s Minotaur, 2007.
____. When Red is Black. New York: Soho Press, 2004.

Vladislav Kruglov / Владислав Круглов 弗拉迪斯拉夫•克鲁格洛夫, Center of Pedagogical Proficiency, Moscow/Russia. "The All-Russian Chinese Language Olympiad and The Unified State Exam in the Chinese Language as new forms of examination in Russia 全俄汉语奥林匹克与汉语统一国家考试作为俄罗斯新的考试形式" EJCS 1 (2018) 33-39;
: Today, there are new tendencies in the Russian educational sphere, especial-ly in Chinese Studies. Since the pivot of Russia to the East, Chinese language has become one of the most popular foreign languages to learn. Nowadays the Chinese language is included in the curriculum of many schools and universities. Nevertheless, there are still a lot of problems in Chinese Studies. The All-Russian Chinese Language Olympiad is the first step of the Russian sinological community to harmonize stan-dards of teaching this foreign language, and the introduction of the Unified State Exam in Chinese continues this process of unification and standardization of studying Chinese in Russian schools.
Key words: Chinese language, All-Russian Olympiad, intellectual competition, Unified State Exam.
Requirements for the holding of a regional stage of the Chinese language Olym-piad in the 2017/2018 school year (for organizers and jury members). Approved at the meeting of the Cen-tral Subject-Methodological Commis-sion (Record No. 2 of October 16, 2017) [Electronic resource]. URL: (Date of the request: 08/03/2018)
The Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation) of No-vember 18, 2013 N 1252 Moscow "On the Approval of the Procedure for the All-Russian Olympiad" Item 37.) [Electronic resource]. URL: (Date of the request: 08.03.2018).
Federal Law No. 329-FL of December 21, 2009 "On Amending Article 50 of the Law of the Russian Federation"On Education"and Article 16 of the Fed-eral Law “On Higher and Post-Graduate Professional Educa-tion"RossiyskayaGazeta. - Federal is-sue. - No. 5071 (247). - 3.12.2009 - [Electronic resource].URL: (Date of therequest: 11.03.2018).
References in Russian:
Arefiev A.L. The study of the Chinese language in Russian schools. Arefiev. - [Electronic resource]. URL: (Date of the re-quest: 11.03.2018).
Kurdyumov V.A. The course of the Chi-nese language. Theoretical grammar / V.A. Kurdyumov – 2nd edition, stereot. M .: Citadel-Trade, 2006. - 576 p.
Maslovets O. A Chinese 2-11 grades. Pro-gram for pupils of general educational institutions / author- editor. O. A Maslovets - Blagoveshchensk: Pub-lishing house of the Belarusian State Pedagogical University, 2014 - 72 p.
Maslovets O .A Fundamentals of teaching the Chinese language in universities and school: theory and practice. Text-book / O.A. Maslovets. - 2 nd ed., Rev. - M .: VKN Publishing House. - 2017. - 264 p.

Ahmed Hussein, Khartoum College of Applied Studies, Sudan. "China's Social Re-sponsibilities and Gifts to Africa 1960 to 2017" EJCS 1 (2018), 41-71;
: Research was conducted using multiple methods, (such as historical, descriptive, analytical, comparative and case study) to identify China's social responsi-bilities and gifts to Africa, focusing on Af-rica and African multi-level cooperation for development with China.
Key words: keine vorhanden.
“China's booming trade with Africa helps tone its diplomatic muscle”. In: The Guardian (March 22, 2012),, visited December 10, 2018.
Hussein, Ahmed, Global Financial Crisis, Study about global economy, focusing on USA, China and Sudan economies, April 2008 – May, 2010, Khartoum University press, Khartoum/Sudan 2010, 85 pp.
Hussein Ahmed, “China Economic Im-pacts in the World of today and the Fu-ture Perspectives”, research paper, 2017.
Jiang, Wenran, and Jing Jing. “Deepening Chinese Stakes in West Africa: The Case of Ghana.” China Brief , 10 (2010) 4.
Kafui Tsekpo, “Is China the new Imperial-ist on the Bloc?”, research paper, Insti-tute of African Studies, University of Ghana, Legon, p. 8. [no date].
Kofi, Kissi Dompere, African Emancipation, Security and the Progress of China's Power, Department of Economic, Howard University 2013, pp. 22-32. [All illustra-tions are from this paper.]
Munir, Elhimish, Economic Reform, Reda Publishing Press, Damascus/Syria 2003.

He Lifang 何丽芳, Huron University/Canada. "Chinese Interlanguage Speech and Intelligibility: A Study of Canadian University Students’ Chinese Phonetic Acquisition" EJCS 1 (2018) 73-89;
: This article explores the relation-ship between Chinese interlanguage speech and intelligibility in order to establish the impact of phonemes on the intelligibility of Chinese interlanguage speech. Learners are reviewed case by case to study the results and validate the corpus studies with the provided reference for Chinese phonetic acquisition and teaching practice. Students from a Canadian university studying ele-mentary Chinese courses for speech acqui-sition were our target study subjects. These students demonstrate varying degrees of accents. Deeper assessments of the accents and intelligibility of students whose mother tongue is standard Mandarin were con-ducted to establish a better understanding of the accents. It was found that among the subjects, those who made less intonation errors had higher phonetic judgement and it was also easier to understand their verbal expressions. This paper argues that intona-tion is an important factor for the intelligi-bility of Chinese interlanguage speech, but the relationship between the two is not very significant.
Key words: Interlanguage speech; Intelli-gibility; Chinese phonetic acquisition
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Shen Binbin 沈彬彬. "A Blessing in Disguise - Interview with Professor Yang Wuneng 杨武能", 91-108;
Abstact: none.
Key words: none.
References: none.

Index" EJCS 1 (2018) 109-110

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