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International Journal of Language and Translation Research (IJLTR)

West German University Press: PEER Reviewed Journal IJLTR

International Journal of Language and Translation Research (IJLTR) [English] ISSN 2750-0594, E-ISSN 2750-0608, since 2021

Editorial Board: Jorge Arús Hita, Azizeh Chalak, Lynn M. Burlbaw, Ching-Hsuan Wu, Hamid Marashi, Beatrice Dupuy, Omid Tabatabaei, Peter White, Mansour Tavakoli, Natalia Mikheeva, Hadi Salehi, Gabriella Klein, Ahmad Mohseni, Neil Murray
1. Obligations of the editor:
1.1. Neutrality. The intellectual content of submitted manuscripts is evaluated is evaluated regardless of race, gender, sexual orientation, age, disability, religion, ethnicity, political philosophy of the authors.
1.2. Confidentiality. All manuscripts should be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to anyone without the permission of the editor. Managers and editorial staff should not disclose information about the manuscript submitted to anyone except the author, reviewers and potential reviewers.
1.3. Disclosure of information and conflicts of interest. Unpublished data contained in the submitted manuscript must not be used by editors or reviewers in their own research without the explicit consent of the author.
1.4. Decision on publication. The editor of the journal decides on the publication of submitted articles. The editor is guided by the Editorial Committee’s policy, taking into account the legal obligations regarding defamation, copyrights and plagiarism. The editor can share the decision with other members of the Editorial Board or with reviewers. In the event of an appeal of the decision of the Reading Committee, the editor may solicit two new reviewers.
2. Obligations of reviewers.
2.1. Editorial decisions. Reviewers assist the editorial staff in making decisions and may also assist the author to improve the quality of the manuscript.
2.2. Delays and deadlines. When a guest reviewer does not feel competent enough to evaluate the research presented in the manuscript, or if he finds himself unable to provide his report in time, he must inform the editor without delay in order to give him time to contact other reviewers.
2.3. Standards of objectivity, civility and respect. The reports must be objective. Personal remarks and criticisms directed at the author or hurtful remarks directed at the text content are not eligible. The opinion of the reviewer must be clear, well-argued and respectful of the author.
2.4. Indication of sources. The reviewer must identify appropriate publications not cited by the author. Any such indication must be accompanied by an appropriate comment. The reviewer should draw the editor’s attention to any similarity, any overlap between the manuscript and previously published data.
2.5. Disclosure of information and conflicts of interest. Information and ideas obtained through anonymous replay are confidential and should not be used for the personal benefit of the reviewer. Reviewers should not accept reviewing manuscripts where this may result in a conflict of interest arising from competitive, collaborative or other relationships with the authors.
3. Obligations of the authors.
3.1. Information validity. The information contained in the manuscripts submitted for publication must present the results of the authors’ research as well as an objective discussion of these results and their importance. The underlying data must be presented correctly. Fraudulent and consciously inaccurate information is considered unethical and unacceptable. The identification of research done by others must always be given. Authors should cite the publications that influenced the study in question.
3.2. Originality and plagiarism. Authors must ensure that they have written a completely original study, and if they have used other people’s books or statements, they must be properly cited.
3.3. Multiple publications. An author should not submit manuscripts representing the same study to more than one journal (or book). Submitting the same manuscript in more than one journal is unethical and unacceptable. The journal accepts articles originally published in languages other than English. In these cases, the authors must give the reference of the first publication and be free from the copyright of the original publisher.
3.4. Paternity of the manuscript. Only authors who have made a significant contribution to the study in question are considered to be authors. All those who contributed to the study must be present in the list of authors. If other people have been involved in some aspects of the research project, they should be mentioned in the acknowledgments. The lead author must ensure that all co-authors and only they are included in the list of authors of the manuscript, that the co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the manuscript, and that they have agreed to submission of the manuscript.
3.5. Disclosure of information and conflicts of interest. All authors must indicate, as a result of their biographical presentation, any conflicts of interest that may affect their proposed publication. Funding for research projects that made the study possible must be indicated.
3.6. Errors in publishing. If the author discovers an important error or an inaccuracy in its publication, its obligation is to quickly inform the editor and to consider, in agreement with the person in charge, the withdrawal of the article or the publication of the information about the error.

IJLTR 1 (2021) 4 pdf for download"

Martin Woesler, Chen Yang, Hunan Normal University/China " Recategorizing Walter Benjamin as Non-deconstructivist based on a Comparison of Jacques Derrida’s and Benjamin’s Views on Translation" IJLTR 1 (2021) 4:1-13 DOI:10.12906/9783899664744_001
According to traditional Western views on translation, conveying the meaning is the first aim. In Benjamin’s eyes, this is an acceptance of the “non-identity of languages”, harming linguistic development. With his understanding, Benjamin challenged ideas viewing language as a tool. For this challenge, he has been regarded by many scholars as a forerunner, re-belling against Western logocentrism. He also contributed to the develop-ment of translation studies, e.g. with his concept of a “pure language”. Another dominant figure of deconstructivism is Derrida, who also chal-lenged logocentrism. He has created many concepts like “la difference”, dis-semination, trance etc., which serve not only linguistics and philosophy, but also translation studies. In the history of Western translation, Benjamin has often been classified as a member of deconstructivism, even being compared with Derrida in regard to their deconstructive architectural concept of “absence” (MacArthur 1993). However, Benjamin’s understanding of translation differs from Derrida’s. This paper compares their comprehension of translation mainly regarding the aspects of “pure language” and “la différence”, metaphrase and relevant translations, “afterlife” and “rebirth” of the original. Their attitudes towards the five dimensions original work, author, translator, translation work and translation criterion respectively are explored. It is concluded that Benjamin does not belong to deconstructivism.

Key words:
Benjamin, Derrida, Translation, Deconstructivism, pure language, la différence
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Derrida, J. (2004). What is A “Relevant” Translation? Lawrence, Venuti (trans. & ed.). The Translation Studies Reader (Second Edition). New York: Routledge, 423-446.
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Reiss, C. (1971) Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Übersetzungskritik (Translation Critcism – The Potentials and Limitations),
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Wei Jiangang 魏建刚, Sun Yingchun 孙迎春. (2013). “本体论抑或方法论——本雅明《译者的任务》再探” (Ontology or Methodology: A Re-examination of Benjamin's ‚The Task of the Translator’). Foreign Languages and Foreign Language Teaching (2), 72-76.
Wohlfarth, I. (2003). 一个马克思主义者的“创世纪" (A Marxist's "Genesis"). Translated by Guo Jun 郭军. Edited by Guo Jun 郭军, Cao Leiyu 曹雷雨, 27-42.
Zhu Gang 朱刚. (2006). 本原与延异:德里达对本原形而上学的解构 (Origin and Extension of Difference: Derrida's Deconstruction of the Metaphysics of Origin). Shanghai: Shanghai People's Publishing House.

Reza Rahekhoda " Expansion in Film Subtitling: The Case of English-Persian Subtitles" IJLTR 1 (2021) 4:15-31 DOI:10.12906/9783899664744_002
This study investigates the application of expansion in Persian subtitles of English films. More precisely, this study aims at classifying the different types of expansions used in subtitles as well as investigating the appropriateness or inappropriateness of the employment of each type, considering the time and space constraints which are peculiar to subtitling. To achieve this purpose, three English films, “The Net” (1995), “Contact” (1997), and “Mission Impossible 2” (2000), available with Persian subtitles, were selected for the study. To gather the required data, these films were watched and the Persian subtitles in which expansion had been used were identified and extracted along with their English dialogs. Then, the extracted Persian subtitles were classified based on the reason that gave rise to expansion in each case. Then, the appropriateness or inappropriateness of using expansion in the extracted Persian subtitles was descriptively investigated. Finally, an equivalent not containing any expansion was proposed for those cases in which the meaning could be fully transferred without this strategy. The findings of the study indicated that a number of reasons gave rise to the expansion of subtitles. These reasons range from explicitation (explicitation of visual, co-textual and contextual information), mistranslation and paraphrasing to subtitler’s preferences. Furthermore, it was found that the application of expansion was inappropriate in all cases except for those caused by explicitation of contextual information, since correct and shorter equivalents, which were equally capable of co
Key words: Audiovisual translation, expansion, explicitation, mistranslation, subtitling
Bahumaid, S. (2006). Collocations in English-Arabic translation. Babel, 52, 133-152.
Baker, M. (1992). In Other Words. A Coursebook on Translation. London: Routledge.
Bielsa, E., et al. (2009). Translation in Global News. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Boduch, Robert D. (1999). Great Headlines-Instantly! How To Write Powerful, Attention-Grabbing Headlines That Pull in More Prospects, More Customers and More Profits, Now!
Cowie, A. (1981). The treatment of collocations and idioms in learner’s dictionaries. Applied Linguistics, 11(3), 223-235.
Hornby, A S. (2007). Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
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Manning, Ch., D. & Hinrich S. (1999). Foundations of statistical natural language processing. Cambridge, Mass. MIT Press.
Minnaar, Rae-Ann. (2012). A Self-Reflexive Investigation into Effective Translation Strategies with Preference to Jeanne Goosen’s Louoond. MA Thesis.
Reah, D. (1998). The language of newspapers. London: Routledge.
Rohani, Ali, Esmaeili, M. (2010). A Contrastive Analysis of Sports Headlines in Two English Newspapers. Journal of Applied Language Studies. Vol. 4, No. 1.
Sughair, Yusraal. (2007). The Translation of Lexical Collocations in Literary Texts. B.A. Thesis. American University of Sharjah.
Venuti, L. (ed.). (2004). The Translation Studies Reader. 2nd edition. USA: Routledge.
Vinay, J. P., Darbelnet, J. (1995). Comparative Stylistics of French and English: a Methodology for Translation, (translated by J. C. Sager and M. J. Hamel), Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Žvirblytė, Indrė, Petronienė, Saulė. (2012). Headlines of Online News Articles: Degree of Equivalence in Translation. Studies about languages.

Marzieh Alirezaei " Translation of English Collocations into Persian: Sport News Headlines in Focus" IJLTR 1 (2021) 4:33-47 DOI:10.12906/9783899664744_003
This study was an attempt to find out which strategies are used in the translation of collocations in sport news headlines and making decisions regarding the extent of English collocations that are preserved in the Persian translations. For this purpose, one hundred collocations were selected from sport news headlines and were compared to their Persian translations. They were investigated based on Vinay and Darbelnet (1995) Model. The results showed that “Equivalence” was used more than other strategies, while the next most frequently-used strategies were “Borrowing”, “Literal translation” and “Transposition”. The least frequently-used strategy was “Modulation”. “Calque” and “Adaptation” were not used by the translators. Also, most of the collocations were preserved in the Persian translations.
Key words: Collocation, Headline, Translation Strategies, Sports News
Bahumaid, S. (2006). Collocations in English-Arabic translation. Babel, 52, 133-152.
Baker, M. (1992). In Other Words. A Coursebook on Translation. London: Routledge.
Bielsa, E., et al. (2009). Translation in Global News. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Boduch, Robert D. (1999). Great Headlines-Instantly! How To Write Powerful, Attention-Grabbing Headlines That Pull in More Prospects, More Customers and More Profits, Now!
Cowie, A. (1981). The treatment of collocations and idioms in learner’s dictionaries. Applied Linguistics, 11(3), 223-235.
Hornby, A S. (2007). Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
Lareau, F., Dras, M., B¨orschinger, B., Turpin, M. (2012). Implementing Lexical Functions in XLE. CSLI Publications.
Manning, Ch., D. & Hinrich S. (1999). Foundations of statistical natural language processing. Cambridge, Mass. MIT Press.
Minnaar, Rae-Ann. (2012). A Self-Reflexive Investigation into Effective Translation Strategies with Preference to Jeanne Goosen’s Louoond. MA Thesis.
Reah, D. (1998). The language of newspapers. London: Routledge.
Rohani, Ali, Esmaeili, M. (2010). A Contrastive Analysis of Sports Headlines in Two English Newspapers. Journal of Applied Language Studies. Vol. 4, No. 1.
Sughair, Yusraal. (2007). The Translation of Lexical Collocations in Literary Texts. B.A. Thesis. American University of Sharjah.
Venuti, L. (ed.). (2004). The Translation Studies Reader. 2nd edition. USA: Routledge.
Vinay, J. P., Darbelnet, J. (1995). Comparative Stylistics of French and English: a Methodology for Translation, (translated by J. C. Sager and M. J. Hamel), Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Žvirblytė, Indrė, Petronienė, Saulė. (2012). Headlines of Online News Articles: Degree of Equivalence in Translation. Studies about languages.

Huannan Su, Fengyi Ma "Medical English Translation in Medical English Classes of Chinese Colleges: A Literature-based Review " IJLTR 1 (2021) 4:49-69 DOI:10.12906/9783899664744_004
The current literature review intends to have a brief understanding of the general situation of medical English translation in medical English classes of contemporary Chinese medical colleges. Thus, in order to acquire an evaluation of the existing situation of medical English translation in contemporary Chinese medical colleges, this reviewing paper organically collects relevant literatures regarding medical English translation in contemporary Chinese medical colleges. Based on the results of this reviewing paper, a gap between a lack of certain series of practical medical English translation methods and the needs of applying necessary medical English translation methods is found ultimately. In view of this situation, the reviewers have reiterated the relationship between medical English translation and language learning and brought forward a translational enlightenment for the follow-up translational studies as well as future research regarding medical English translation in contemporary Chinese medical colleges.
Key words: Chinese Medical Colleges, Medical English Classes, Medical English Translation
Bao, Z. (2015). On the Bridging Plan between Translation Theories and Translation Teaching. Foreign Language Teaching, 3, 85-89.
Bo, W., & Deng, M. (2006). A Brief Introduction to the Development of English Translation of Chinese Medicine. Chinese Journal of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, 6, 168-191.
Dong, F., & Liu, F. (2001). Improving the Chinese-English Translation Ability of Medical Students. Chinese Science and Technology Translation, 3, 37-38.
Fu, S., & Luo, Y. (2012). The Definition of Teaching Medical English Corpora and Its Construction Principles. Journal of Changchun University, 9, 1164-1166.
Ge, J. & Luo, X. (2010). A New Perspective on Foreign Language Teaching in the Era of New Media-Multiliteracies Pedagogy. Foreign Language Circles, 5, 13-19.
Huang, Y. (2012). The Translation of Long Sentences in Medical English. Changsha: Huanan Normal University Press.
Huang, Y. (2013). A Survey of Special Purpose English Teaching Based on Needs Analysis-Taking Medical English as an Example. Nanjing: Nanjing Normal University Press.
Hutchinson, T., & Waters, A. (2002). English for Specific Purposes. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.
Lepetit, D., & Cichochi, W. (2002). Teaching Languages to Future Health Professionals: A Needs Assessment Study. The Modern Language Journal, 86(3), 386-394.
Li, Z. (1997). Attach Importance to the Study of Traditional Chinese Medicine Translation Theory and Speed up the Construction of Traditional Chinese medicine Translation. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Management, 7(4), 64-65.
Li, Z., & Zhang, Q. (2009). English for Traditional Chinese Medicine. Shanghai: Shanghai Science and Technology Press.
Liu, X. (2000). About Medical English Translation. China Science and Technology Translation, 1, 13-15.
Lu, B. (2012). The Era Mission of Traditional Chinese Medicine Translation. Masterpiece Appreciation, 11, 250-272.
Ma, H. (2005). On Medical English Translation from the Perspective of Translation Standards and Characteristics of Medical English. Journal of China Science and Technology Information, 22, 139.
Ma, H., & Jin, G. (2008). Analysis of Learning Needs in Medical English Teaching. Journal of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 4, 41-56.
Niu, C. (2004). Talk about the Basic Qualities of Chinese Medical English Translation Researchers. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 4.
Richards, J. C. (2000). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sheng, S. (2009). History of Medical English Translation of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Jinan: Shandong University Press.
Wang, F., Shang, Y., & Li, Q. (2009). Practice and Thinking on Bilingual Teaching of Medical Genetics. Medical Research and Education, 26(6), 91-93.
Wang, L. (2014). On Translation of Traditional Chinese Medicine into English from Cultural Background. Shenyang: Liaoning Traditional Chinese Medicine University Press.
Xi, Y. (2009). “Faithfulness, Expressiveness and Elegance”, the Three Principles of Translation and Dynamic Equivalence: A New Exploration of the Similarities and Differences between the Three Translation Standards in China and the West and Their Reasons. Journal of Cangzhou Teachers College, 9, 40-42.
Yan, Z. (2007). A Preliminary Study of Medical English Translation. Shanghai: Shanghai Maritime University.
Yang, T., & Liu, Z. (2009). On Medical English Translation. Journal of Mudanjiang Education College, 1, 72-73.
Yin, C. (2013). Application of Translation Strategies to English Translation of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Shanghai: Shanghai Normal University Press.
Zhu, S. (2015). The Current Status of the Medical Translation Industry and the Principles of Practice. Chinese Translation, 2, 111-114.

Nadia Pirmoradian, Azizeh Chalak " Iranian Students’ Attitudes Towards English Loanwords in Persian with a Focus on Gender Differences" IJLTR 1 (2021) 4:71-86 DOI:10.12906/9783899664744_005
The English language has affected nearly every language community in the world. Persian is no exception as many English words have been borrowed in Persian. This study was nonexperimental quantitative-descriptive research employing an approach to examine the Iranian postgraduate students’ attitudes towards English lexical borrowings and if there was a difference between the attitude of male Persian speakers and female Persian speakers. To fulfill the purpose of this study, two sets of questionnaires were distributed among 60 Iranian students majoring in law and business through snowball sampling. The quantitative data were collected by means of two sets of questionnaires and entered into SPSS and the frequencies, percentages, and mean of the individual items were calculated and analyzed.
The data analyses showed evidence of positive attitudes of students towards English loanwords. The results also indicated that the growth of social media has a great effect in the use of English words which seems to be kept across both genders. All in all, it was concluded that attitudes towards English loanwords in Persian were positive, yet there was not a statistically significant correlation between Iranian female students and Iranian male participants. The study contributes to our understanding of the nature of lexical borrowings from English into Persian. Therefore, an implication of this study is that English loanwords must only be used appropriately and when necessary because misuses of them will result in weakening and deterioration of the Persian language.
Key words: Attitudes, Borrowing, Loanwords, Persian speakers
Abdi, R., & Nazari, F. (2015). A study on social media and frequently-used English words by Persian speaking users. Global Media Journal-Persian Edition, 10(2), 146-160.
Daulton, F. E. (2004). The comprehension of English loanwords in the Japanese media. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 25(5), 285-296. DOI:10.1080/01434630408666533.
Daulton, F.E. (2011). On the origins of gairaigo bias: English learners’ attitudes towards English based loanwords in Japan. The Language Teacher, 35(6), 7-12.
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Hatanaka, M. & Pannell, J. (2016). English loanwords and made-in-Japan English in Japanese. Hawaii Pacific University TESOL Working Paper Series 14, 14-29.
Hojati, A. (2012). A study of the Iranian EFL students' errors in the pronunciation of ten highfrequency technology-related English loan words. Sheikhbahaee EFL Journal, 1(2). 91-107. DOI: 10.22034/EFL.2012.79177.
Hojati, A., Mirzaee, A., & Roustaei, M. (2013). A study of false friends in English and Farsi. European journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 19(1). 37-49.
Hoque, M. A., Ali, M. M., Puteh-Behak, F., & Baharun, H. (2021). Lexical borrowings from the English language into Bangla short stories. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies 17(1), 158-172. Doi: 10.52462/jlls.9.
Hosseini Goodrich, N. (2020). English in Iran. World Englishes 39, 482–499. DOI:10.1111/weng.12491.
Islamic Republic News Agency. (2017). Hoshdar! Zabaan-e Farsi darmaohasereye vajegane biganeh [Warning: The Persian language is surrounded by foreign words].
Kowner, R., & Rosenhouse J. (2008). The hegemony of English and determinants of borrowing from its vocabulary. In J. Rosenhouse & Kowner R. (Eds.), Globally speaking: Motives for adopting English vocabulary in other languages, (pp. 4-18). DOI:10.21832/9781847690524-004.
Mashhadi Heidar, D., Mollahosseyni M., & Asaee, M. (2017). A study on the frequency of occurrence and usage of Anglicism in speech of young Iranian telegram Users. Sociological Studies of Youth, 7(25), 43-56.
Rahimi, M., & Ruzrokh, S. (2016). The impact of teaching lingua franca core on English as a foreign language learners’ intelligibility and attitudes towards English pronunciation. Asian Englishes, 18, 141–156. DOI:10.1080/13488678.2016.1173466.
Rezaei, S., Khosravizadeh, P., & Mottaghi, Z. (2018). Attitudes toward world Englishes among Iranian English language learners. Asian Englishes, 21(1), 52-69. DOI:10.1080/13488678.2018.1440367.
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Rüdiger, S. (2018). Mixed feelings: Attitudes towards English loanwords and their use in South Korea. Open Linguistics; 4, 184–198. DOI:10.1515/opli-2018-0010.
Sharifian, F. (2008). Cultural schemas in L1 and L2 compliment responses: A study of Persianspeaking learners of English. Journal of Politeness Research, 4, 55–80. DOI:10.1515/PR.2008.003.
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Yegt, W. (2014). Attitudes towards English loanwords in Dutch news broadcasts: The influence of gender and age. M.A Thesis. Leiden University. DOI:10.1525/9780520912793.
Zarrinabadi, N., & Mahmoudi-Gahrouei, V. (2018). English in contemporary Iran. Asian Englishes, 20, 81–94. DOI:10.1080/13488678.2017.1389147.

IJLTR 1 (2021) 3 pdf for download"

Hadi Salehi, Somayeh Kiani, Islamic Azad University/Iran " Vocabulary Recall Improvement through Acronyms: A Case Study of Iranian Advanced EFL Learners" IJLTR 1 (2021) 3:1-14 DOI:10.12906/9783899664737_001
This study aimed at investigating the effects of using acronyms on improving vocabulary recall among Iranian EFL learners. To this aim, 20 advanced EFL learners were selected and randomly assigned to two groups; namely, experimental and control. The data collection instruments were a vocabulary test consisting of some multiple-choice items and a questionnaire for exploring the participants’ perceptions of using acronyms for improving vocabulary recall. Eighty target words chosen from a textbook entitled, General English Language (2nd ed.), authored by Jafari, were also provided as the materials of the study. The vocabulary test was administered to the participants as pretest and posttest prior to and after the treatment. The findings revealed that using acronyms had a significant effect on improving vocabulary recall among the learners in the experimental group. Moreover, the participants in the experimental group had positive perceptions of the effects of using acronyms on improving vocabulary recall. The findings of this research are beneficial for those who are concerned with English learning and teaching including learners, teachers and researchers.
Key words:
Acronym, EFL Learners, Language Learning Strategy, Memory Strategy, Vocabulary Recall
Alipour, P. (2020). A comparative study of online vs. blended learning on vocabulary development among intermediate EFL learners. Cogent Education, 7(1). DOI: 10.1080/2331186X.2020.1857489.
Banisaeid, M. (2013). Comparative effect of memory and cognitive strategies on EFL intermediate learners’ vocabulary learning. English Language Teaching, 6(8), 108-113.
Fakher Ajabshir, Z. (2011). The effect of verbal and visual techniques on vocabulary achievement of Iranian EFL students. The Iranian EFL Journal, 7(5), 43-70.
Fazeli, H. (2010). A modern approach to application of abbreviation and acronym strategy for vocabulary learning in second/foreign language learning procedure. Language in India, 10, 407-418.
Gilbreth, J., & Taghva, K. (1999). Recognizing acronyms and their definitions. International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition, 1(4), 191-198.
Gruneberg, M., & Pascoe, K. (1996). The effectiveness of the keyword method for receptive and productive foreign vocabulary learning in the elderly. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21, 102-109.
Hock, H. S., & Noice, H. (1987). A word superiority effect with nonorthographic acronyms: Testing for unitized visual codes. Perception & Psychophysics, 42(5), 485-490.
Izura, C., & Playfoot, D. (2012). A normative study of acronyms and acronym naming. Behavior Research Methods, 44(3), 1-95.
Jafari, D. (2013). General English language (2nd ed.). Payam Daneshgahi Publications.
Kafipour, R., & Yazdi, M. (2014). A qualitative study of vocabulary learning strategies applied by Iranian undergraduate EFL learners in real learning setting. English Language Teaching, 7(7), 1-7.
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Nasrin Khaleghi Zavareh, National Institute of Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences/Iran " Translation of Culture-Specific Items from English into Persian: A Case Study of The Secret Garden" IJLTR 1 (2021) 3: 15-37 DOI:10.12906/9783899664737_002
In this study, the main purpose was to analyze the culture-specific items in three Persian translations of an English literary work, The Secret Garden. In order to achieve this objective, Newmark’s taxonomy of culture-specific items and Vinay and Darbelnet’s model of translation were used for identifying and classifying the translation strategies of culture-specific items applied in the three Persian translations of the book. To do so, first, the CSIs were extracted from the source text. Then, the translation strategies applied in culture-specific items of the three Persian translations were detected, compared and analyzed. The obtained results showed that the ‘equivalence strategy’ was the dominant translation strategy, and ‘particularization’ and ‘adaptation’ were the least frequently-used strategies. This finding has practical implications
Key words:
Culture, Culture-specific items, Translation strategies, Vinay and Darbelnet’s model of translation
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Mahdi Rostami Ravari, Neda Fatehi Rad, Islamic Azad University/Iran " Impact of Dialogue Journal Writing on EFL Learners' Self-Regulation and Reading Comprehension Performance" IJLTR 1 (2021) 3: 39-70 DOI:10.12906/9783899664737_003
: Dialogue journal writing is an activity by which language participants can make a bond of written communication with their teachers and practice various aspects of the target language. This feature can make dialogue journal writing a learner-centered instrument to improve learners' proficiency in different aspects of language. With this in mind, the present study explored the impact of dialogue journal writing on self-regulation and reading comprehension performance of EFL learners in a language institute. To this purpose, an experimental pre-test, post-test research design was used. The participants of the study were 60 pre-intermediate participants who were divided into experimental and control groups of equal size (30). At the end of the treatment, the participants took a post-test and post-questionnaire of self-regulation and the scores were recorded carefully. The results of the study indicated that the employment dialogue journal writing has a significant impact on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension skill and their self-regulation.
Key words:
Journal writing, self-regulation, reading comprehension ability, EFL learners
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Azar Bagheri Masoudzade, Islamic Azad University/Iran und Raziyeh Hashemi Lahijani, Kerman Institute of Higher Education/Iran " Communicative Language Teaching Method (CLT) and Final Examination of Iranian EFL Learners" IJLTR 1 (2021) 3: 71-90 DOI:10.12906/9783899664737_004
: Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) aims at improving students’ abilities to communicate in a foreign language. This approach has been welcomed and employed by numerous EFL teachers. The current research attempted to probe the effectiveness of CLT method as a communicative approach on EFL learners’ achievements in their final examinations. It also aimed at exploring the EFL learners’ attitudes towards the use of CLT method in their language classes. A total number of 60 female students of elementary level was selected based on convenience sampling. A pre-test was administered to the participants at the beginning of the term to ensure that they had the same language background. Then, they were randomly assigned as experimental and control groups (30 students in each group). Communicative activities were employed with the experimental group while control group was exposed to traditional, non-communicative teaching method. The research lasted a term approximately six weeks. At the end of the experiment, a post-test (final exam) was assigned to both groups to determine whether CLT method had positively affected the EFL learners' achievement in final examination. In the last session, CLT questionnaire was distributed among the learners of the experimental group to explore their views (positive or negative) towards CLT method. The results showed that CLT method had a positive effect on the students' achievements in final examination. The experimental study has also illustrated the positive students’ attitude toward this communicative teaching method.
Key words:
Communicative, Language Teaching (CLT), Communicative Competence, Communicative Activities, Final Examination
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Narges Backtash, University of Tehran/Iran und Masoud Taheri, Islamic Azad University/Iran " Teaching-Learning Asymmetry: Why Don't Learners Learn What Teachers Teach" IJLTR 1 (2021) 3: 91-104 DOI:10.12906/9783899664737_005
: Teachers of EFL, as well as teacher trainers, have always complained about mismatch between what they do in the language classes and the outcome of it in the real world. There has been much debate as to whether the mismatch results from learner variables, teacher inadequacies, program deficiencies, etc. The present paper reviews some existing learning perspectives and tries to come up with some hypotheses concerning the problem. One hypothesis put forward here to test in a comparative form is that the language learning environment and the strategies used by the teachers and learners do not match and therefore the efforts of both groups go down the drain. Implications of the possible confirmation of such hypothesis for language teachers are discussed and some conclusions are drawn on that basis.
Key words:
First language acquisition, second language acquisition, language testing
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Valeh Jalali, Islamic Azad University/Iran " Simplification: A Case Study of the Persian Translations of The Little Prince " IJLTR 1 (2021) 3: 105-119 DOI:10.12906/9783899664737_006
: The present study explores the application of ‘simplification, as a translation universal, in three Persian translations of The Little Prince, a novel by Saint-Exupery, to find out whether there is any significant difference among them in terms of using this translation strategy. The study also aims to determine which translation is the most successful in simplifying the text in translation. The three translations examined belong to Shamloo, Qazi and Najafi, respectively. To this purpose, Kludy’s (2003) classification is used as the theoretical framework of the study. So, the data regarding simplification are extracted from the three translations on the basis of the categories of this framework. Then, the frequency of simplification strategies present in the three translations is calculated and comparisons are made.
Key words: Simplification, Simplification hypotheses, Translation universals
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IJLTR 2 (2021)
Mona Lavenezhad, Islamic Azad University/Iran " Effect of Textual Integrity of Argumentative Texts on EFL Learners’ ReadingPerformance: Different Levels of Language Proficiency in Focus" IJLTR 1 (2021) 2: 1-25 DOI:10.12906/9783899664720_001
The present study aimed at investigating the effect of textual integrity of argumentative texts on EFLlearners’ reading comprehension performance. It also aimed at checking the extent of such an effectamong learners with different language proficiency. To this purpose, 120 students learning English at Jihad Daneshgahi Institute in Isfahan were selected as the participants. They were selected from apool of 200 available and interested students and were divided into three groups of low proficient, intermediate and high proficient learners of equal size (40), based on their scores on an OQPT proficiency test. Then, 3 reading comprehension tests (cloze tests), with an appropriate level of text difficulty, were prepared by the researcher. In making the tests, the text in each test was either kept authentic in terms of textual integrity (i.e. text organization, cohesive devices, etc.), or manipulated to lose its textual unity and, thus, be more difficult to read and understand. The results of data analysis indicated that manipulated argumentative texts negatively affect EFL learners’ reading performanceat all levels of language proficiency. The results additionally revealed that text manipulation, i.e. textual integrity decrease, has a more significant effect on the reading performance of the intermediategroup participants. The findings of this study can have some implications for language teachers to become more alert to the effect of textual integrity of texts on reading comprehension performance of students when trying to understand argumentative texts. Furthermore, the findings might be constructive for materials developers, i.e helping them to prepare appropriate texts in terms of textualintegrity and readability, in line with the needs and levels of EFL learners.
Key words: English writing, Digital mind mapping, Mind Perception, Traditional mind mapping
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Maryam Askari, Islamic Azad University/Iran " Relationship between Two Translation Quality Assessments: Holistic Rating Vs. Waddington’s Model of Assessment" IJLTR 1 (2021) 2: 27-46 DOI:10.12906/9783899664720_002
: Translation quality assessment is one of the most significant and, at the same time, problematic areas of translation. The critical importance of this issue becomes more obvious in pedagogical contexts. The present study focused on the translation quality assessment undertaken in Islamic Azad University of Bandar-Abbas which offers translation training in both B.A and M.A levels. In this study, Waddington’s model of TQA, which is accepted as an objective model, was applied to the exam papers of the students, already assessed and scored by their instructors. The results obtained from statistical analysis of the data, that is, the two sets of scores, revealed that a correlation does exist between the scores obtained through applying Waddington’s model and the scores assigned to the papers by the instructors. Based on this finding, two conclusions were drawn: 1) the assessment carried out in the above-mentioned university is objective, and 2) Waddington’s model and its criteria are not that much objective, and has some shortcomings. One of the shortcomings, according to the findings of the present study, is that ‘the unit of translation’ has not been specified in the model. Thus, the researcher proposes to consider concept’ as the ‘unit of translation’.
Key words:
Holistic method, objective translation assessment criteria, translator training, Waddington’s Model
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Rana Rahimi Larki, Islamic Azad University/Iran " Relationship between Self-regulated Learning and Self-disclosure in EFL Classes: Speaking Competence in Focus" IJLTR 1 (2021) 2: 47-67 DOI:10.12906/9783899664720_003
: The present study aimed at investigating the relationship between self-regulated learning and self-disclosures in EFL speaking classes. To this end, 30 male and female Iranian EFL learners whose level of proficiency was intermediate participated in the study. Oxford Quick Placement Test (OQPT) was used for evaluating the participants’ general English knowledge and their self-regulations were assessed by Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI). A pre-test was administered to evaluate how much the students were good at self-disclosure. The self-regulation strategies were taught directly to the participants in 10 sessions. After completing the treatment, the post-test was conducted to assess the participants’ improvement and to understand the relationship between self-regulation and self-disclosure. To measure the relationship between self-regulation and self-disclosure, Person Correlation was run. The results of the study revealed that there was a strong positive correlation between self-regulation and self-disclosure. In another words, self-regulation learning affected participants’ self-disclosure positively. The results of the study may offer implications for English teaching in general and teaching oral skill in specific.
Key words:
Competence, Oral Proficiency, Self-Regulation, Self-Disclosure
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Mahsa Soleimani und Hossein Vahid Dastjerdi, University of Isfahan/Iran " Impact of Opinion-Exchange and Information Gap Tasks on EFL Learners’ Willingness to Communicate" IJLTR 1(2021) 2: 69-87 DOI:10.12906/9783899664720_004
: The present study sought to investigate the effect of two types of tasks; namely, ‘information-gap’ and ‘opinion-exchange’, on EFL learners’ Willingness to Communicate (WTC). To this end, the needed data was collected from 90 female EFL learners in Koushesh Language Institute in Isfahan, Iran, and the participants were divided into one control and two experimental groups (A and B). The latter received treatments in one of the two experimental situations and were measured for their level of L2 Willingness to Communicate (WTC). Group A received ‘information gap’ for a period of 16 sessions, and group B received ‘opinion-exchange’ tasks. The control group received no task of specific type. At the end of the treatment, the participants filled a questionnaire on their WTC. The results indicated that members of both the experimental groups outperformed those of the control group. Furthermore, it was revealed that opinion-exchange tasks had better effects on the enhancement of the participants’ WTC. The findings of this study may be very beneficial for the teachers of the English language who wish to improve their EFL learners’ speaking ability. In fact, creating environments for learners to communicate in English inside and outside the classroom through tasks would enhance learners’ willingness to communicate.
Key words:
Willingness to Communicate, information-gap task, opinion exchange task
Akbarzadeh, M., & Narafshan, M. H. (2016). A Study on the Relationship between EFL Learners’ anxiety and Willingness to Communicate in Language Classes. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 11(2), 73-85.
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Mehrdad Vasheghani Farahani, Leipzig University/Germany und Nemutallah Shomoossi, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences/Iran " Letter to the Editor - Social Isolation and Disconnectedness in Translators: An Overlooked Occupational Concern" IJLTR 1 (2021) 2: 89-92 DOI:10.12906/9783899664720_005
: none.
Key words:
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pdf for download"
IJLTR 1 (2021) 1

Shima Ghobadi, Nastaran Zahedian, Islamic Azad University/Iran " Advertisement Slogans in English-Persian Translations: In Search of Appropriate Persuasive Features" IJLTR 1 (2021) 1:1-16 DOI:10.12906/9783899664713_001
English advertisement slogans are rarely translated into Persian though they are almost everywhere around us. In the present study, due to the importance of the persuasive language and the rhetorical figures in advertisement slogans, couples of English-Persian advertisement slogans were analyzed to illustrate the persuasive characteristics used in them. The findings revealed that to sell the foreign products well in Iran’s markets, translators of related slogans should be aware of the persuasive language of advertisements and find the most appropriate translation strategy through analyzing them. It was also revealed in the analysis of the selected slogans and comparison of their translated versions that the Persian style of advertisements is in some ways different from their counterparts in English, yet they do share a number of features. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that the translation of advertisement slogans should be regarded as a form of featured translation demanding translators’ sensitivity.
Key words:
Advertisement slogans, persuasion, cultural features, advertising slogans
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Adab, B., & Valdés, C. (Editors). (2004). Key debates in the translation of advertising material. The Translator, 10(2), 58-62.
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Hossein Heidari Tabrizi, Islamic Azad University/Iran " Pedagogical Quality of English Achievement Tests: An Untold Story of Iranian High School Students’ Oral Scores" IJLTR 1 (2021) 1: 17-29 DOI:10.12906/9783899664713_002
: The test scores on students’ report cards is the only benchmark against which their English achievement are assessed for evaluative purposes in Iranian high schools. According to the rules and regulations, the average score of a student is required to be reported by English teachers, based on her/his performance on both oral and written tests. The present study aimed to discover if Iranian high school female students’ English scores on their report cards represent the real sum of their oral and written test scores. To do so, the average scores of 30 female students in Grade 11 at two Iranian girls’ senior high schools in Isfahan were compared with those of a researcher-made validated oral and written test. The results showed that the scores of the students on the newly-developed test were higher than those recorded on their report cards. The results of a paired t test revealed a statistically significant difference between the means of these two sets of scores, rejecting the common false presupposition about students’ low performance in oral skills. Teachers typically skipped the oral test and rated their students’ oral ability, just on the basis of their own intuition or students’ performance on the written test. It seems that the exclusion of the oral test leads to this difference in the scores. Thus, Iranian high school students’ English scores appearing on their report card are not a sound reflection of their performance on the oral and written tests.
Key words:
English Achievement Tests, Iranian High Language Assessing Quality, Students’ Oral Scores
Abbasi, S., Chalak, A., & Heidari Tabrizi, H. (2021). Impact of online strategies-based instruction on Iranian advanced EFL learners’ speaking scores. International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching & Research, 9(36), 21-37.
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Elaheh Mashhadi, Islamic Azad University/Iran " Naturalness in Translation: A Case Study of the Figurative Elements in the Persian Rendering of To Kill a Mockingbird" IJLTR 1 (2021) 1: 48-49 DOI:10.12906/9783899664713_003
: The present research examines different translation strategies employed to render into Persian idioms and metaphors in the novel, To Kill a Mockingbird. Actually, the aim of the research is to scrutinize the choices made by the translator when dealing with such elements, through comparing the source and target tropes in search of the most frequently-used strategies. To investigate possible strategies used to render idioms, Baker’s four-stage model was used, while for metaphors, the model proposed by Morneau was applied. As for estimating the naturalness of the translation, Venuti's concepts of domestication and foreignization were utilized. The collected data comprised 209 idioms and 39 metaphors. Analysis of the data revealed that the most frequently-used strategies for rendering idioms and metaphors were paraphrase and word-for-word translation, respectively. Furthermore, it was found that domestication was more dominant than foreignization in the Persian translation. The findings of the present study can be helpful for all those involved in the practice of translating literary works as well as novice translators, translation teachers and translation students.
Key words:
Translation strategies,Domestication, Foreignization,Naturalness, Paraphrase
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Zahra Haghshenas, University of Isfahan/Iran " A Cross-cultural Study of Animal Symbolism in the Persian Renderings of Children's Literatur" IJLTR 1 (2021) 1: 57-79 DOI:10.12906/9783899664713_004
: Animals are among culture-bound items which make the translation practice a difficult task for translators and need specific considerations on the part of the translators. In fact, animals in each culture carry some symbolic meanings with themselves which are specific to that culture and are different from those carried in other cultures. Accordingly, the present study aimed at investigating the Literature. It also sought to find the effectiveness of using such strategies regarding the target audiences.To achieve these goals, eleven animal terms, with different symbolic meanings in western and Persian culture, were investigated in twelve western children’s books and their Persian translations. Then, based on Venuti's (1995) categorization of translation strategies, they were categorized into two main domestication and foreignization translation groups to see which group keeps more preferred strategy among Persian translators of children's literature. The effectiveness of using such strategies was measured by interviewing thirty Persian first grade students to elicit their strategies adopted by Persian translators to render the symbolic meaning of animals in children's knowledge about the symbol of animals and comparing them with the used strategies. The results showed that most of the Persian translators tend to foreignize these cultural terms. However, the results of the interview revealed that children recognize the native symbolic meanings of animals more than their foreign ones. It was concluded that the strategies used by Persian translators is not an appropriate one for translating cultural symbolic terms for Persian children.
Key words:
symbol, children's literature, translation strategy, foreignization, domestication
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Farzan Hasani, Islamic Azad University/Iran und Mohamma Reza Talebinejad, University of Isfahan/Iran " Ideology and Audience in the Translation of 'Geneca Joint Plan of Action': Focus on BBC, VOA, and Press TV" IJLTR 1 (2021) 1: 81-96 DOI:10.12906/9783899664713_005
: This study aimed to investigate how and to what extent news agencies namely BBC, VOA and Press TV may manipulate a political or any given source text ideologically, as to suit their affiliations, how they present the news items and how that affects the audience. To this end, the researcher selected news items mainly in the form of audiovisual material broadcast by the mentioned news agencies regarding the interim agreement of Geneva. Drawing mainly on Van Dijk’s (2004) CDA Socio-Cognitive Framework, the news items which were mostly in form of audio-visual material were transcribed and then analyzed to find out what proportions of the information extracted from these news items were ideologically manipulated compared to the source text and in what order. It was revealed that Lexicalization, Evidentiality and Implication were the most prominent strategies used in BBC, Lexicalization, Number Game and Authority were the most used strategies in VOA and Lexicalization, Categorization and Negative Other-Presentation were the strategies mostly used in Press TV.
Key words:
Geneva Joint Plan of Action, BBC, VOA, Press TV, Lexicalization, Evidentiality and Implication
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Azizeh Chalak, Vahideh Rastgoo, Islamic Azad University/Iran " Perceptions of Language Learners towards the Use of Traditional vs. Digital Mind-Mapping Techniques in English Writing Class" IJLTR 1 (2021) 1: 97-115 DOI:10.12906/9783899664713_006
: The application of various creative teaching methods including mind-mapping has attracted English teachers. Instructors have always shown interest in establishing contexts that motivate and encourage learners to be more enthusiastic in their learning process. Mind-mapping is among the teaching and learning techniques evolved in this regard. The study aimed at comparing the perceptions of language learners toward the use of traditional and digital mind-mapping techniques in English writing classes. This descriptive study was conducted on 30 language learners of Shokouh Institute, Tabas, Iran. They were 14-17 years old with an intermediate level of English proficiency. The participants had already received both traditional and digital trainings and mastered the two techniques. The data on the participants’ perceptions were collected using questionnaires and interviews. The data analysis showed that the participants had positive perceptions toward mind-mapping, particularly digital technique. Based on the findings of the research, mind-mapping technique has helped the students organize their texts. Mind-mapping could also help English students to develop their writing skills in terms of organizing ideas. Consequently, mind-mapping would especially be suitable to assist students plan their English writing, since the technique stimulates them to obtain and establish a deeper understanding of the writing topics.
Key words
English writing, Digital Mind-mapping, Mind-mapping, Perception, Traditional Mind-mapping
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Jafari Nodoushan, T., & Maibodi, A. H. (2014). The impact of mind-mapping strategy on vocabulary use in the writing of Iranian EFL learners. Paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on New Trends in English Language Teaching and Testing, Ardabil, Iran.
Jafari, N., & Zarei, Gh. R. (2015). The influence of concept mapping on Iranian intermediate EFL learners argumentative essay writing skill. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 2, 98-112.
Karamifard, E., & Minaeifar, M. (2016). The effect of using digital vs. traditional mind-mappingstrategy on Iranian young students’ perception. Paper presented at the International Conference on Research in Science and Technology, Malaysia.
Khodabandeh, F. (2021). The comparison of mind-mapping‐based flipped learning approach on introvert and extrovert EFL learners’ speaking skill. Iranian Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 10(1), 35-53.
Khudhair, N. K. (2016). The impact of applying mind-mapping technique as a prewriting tool on EFL college students in essay writing. Journal of College of Education for Women, 27(1), 426-436.
Masaeli, N. & Chalak, A. (2016). The effect of employing electronic portfolio on Iranian EFL learners' writing skill. Theory and Practice in Language Studies (TPLS), 4(7), 746-751.
Mingili, L. (2019). Using mind maps to develop English majors’ essay writing in china. Sino-US English Teaching, 16(10), 419-425.
Mohaidat, M. (2018). The impact of electronic mind maps on students’ reading comprehension. English Language Teaching, 11(4). 32-42.
Muttaqin, K. (2017). The effectiveness of inspiration mind-mapping software in writing expository essay across different gender of students writing achievement at state Islamic Institute of Palangka Raya. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, IAIN Palangka Raya University.
Nasution, D. S. (2020). Mind-mapping to improve students’ speaking skill. English Education:English Journal for Teaching and Learning, 8(1), 1-12.
Nemati, A., Jahandar, Sh., & Khodabandehlou, M. (2014). The effect of mind-mapping technique on the enhancement of advanced Iranian EFL learners’ essay writing ability through organizing information and thoughts. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences, 7, 78-93.
Nouri Mohammed, A. (2013). Introducing the mind map technique to promote lesson summarizing in EFL instruction: Case study of first year IMD student of the English language. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Mohamed Khieder University of Biskra University.
Ravindranath, S., de Abrew, W. K., & Nadarajah, V. D. (2016). Students’ perception of mind-mapping in Problem-based learning. Journal of Contemporary Medical Education, 4(2), 60-66.
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